The following articles are contained in CJ
Abstracts of Articles
CICERO MYTHOLOGUS: THE MYTH OF THE FOUNDERS INDE REPUBLICA
This article proposes that in De Republica Cicero redefines the state by mythologizing the past. It suggests that Scipio's story of the foundation of the mixed constitution is a myth, exalting the wisdom of the founders as an example for their descendants. Through the use of dialogue, Cicero offers an insight into his creation of the myth by not only having Scipio present a highly selective account of the foundation, but also having another interlocutor, Laelius, raise an objection against the founders' alleged wisdom. The mythic quality of the narrative about the founders then paves the way for the dream of Scipio at the end of the dialogue. The dream advances Cicero's mythologizing of the past to a vision for the future, where the restoration of the state rests on the necessity of imitating the virtues of the ancestors.
NON SINE CAUSA SED SINE FINE: CICERO'S COMPULSION TO REPEAT HIS CONSULATE
Freud's theory of the compulsion to repeat in response to a traumatic experience can help explain Cicero's repeated attempts to praise, or have others praise, his consulate. This article argues that Cicero's humiliating exile, and his consequent loss of status, constituted a trauma that Cicero sought to work through by means of narratives that integrate his consulate, exile, and return into a unified story that encapsulates his banishment within an overarching narrative of triumph. Cicero's pitching of his story to the historian Lucceius (Fam. 5.12) demonstrates the psychological dimensions of Cicero's notorious self-praise.
CICERO'S BRUTUS AND THE CRITICISM OF ORATORICAL PERFORMANCE
In the Brutus Cicero shows himself an astute critic of oratorical performance. This paper examines Cicero's opinions on the different modes of delivery employed by many of the orators he mentions in his dialogue. It ultimately reaffirms the power and significance of delivery in supporting or overriding other elements of speech-making. Finally, because the Brutus is to a large extent a record of Cicero's opinions, the dialogue opens a window on his preferences and perhaps even practice in his own oratorical delivery.
DAYS OF FUTURE PASSED: FICTION FORMING FACT IN CICERO'S DIALOGUES
This paper analyzes Cicero's citations of the not-always-historical past in his theoretical corpus. Examining both the Marian oak in the prologue of De Legibusand Cicero's overall use of historical references, I suggest that Cicero explicitly employs unhistorical (or at least not certifiably true) exempla, with a view to the internal consistency of the dialogues' fictional world. By encouraging the reader's acceptance of such fictional examples, Cicero establishes an intersubjective and empathetic relationship with his audience. Ultimately, Cicero seeks to uphold and use others to confirm his internal world as an alternative to the tense world of Roman politics.
SPEECH AND SILENCE IN CICERO'S FINAL DAYS
Composed in spring of 46 BC, Cicero's Brutus emphasizes oratorical silence, in stark contrast with the prominence of the speech act found in the Pro Marcello and first Philippic. Yet in the face of those difficult times and amidst the silence that such times engender, Cicero ironically finds his voice. This paper will demonstrate Cicero's acute awareness, in his final days, of the need to employ his rediscovered voice in light of eloquence's changed role in Rome's new political climate.
FORUM: CONIURATIO! ETHOPOEIA AND 'REACTING TO THE PAST' IN THE LATIN CLASSROOM (AND BEYOND)
"Reacting to the Past" is a pedagogical method that uses immersive role-playing games set in discrete historical moments to motivate efficacious engagement with primary sources. Coniuratio, a new "Reacting" game set during the Catilinarian crisis of 63 BCE, provides a mechanism for students to learn about Roman history and culture, to practice the tenets of classical rhetoric, and to hone their skills in English (and possibly Latin) communication. The article concludes by outlining supplemental activities that may be used to introduce Coniuratio in language and civilization courses and by reviewing the roots of the Reacting method in the ancient educational practice of ethopoeia.